A boy happily playing with a puppy in a room featuring a heated floor system.

As the winter months approach, you can feel filled with feelings of worry and despair at the thought of trying to stay warm. Maybe you don't have a heating system, or you don't even want to consider turning on your radiator with its sky-high electric bills. Luckily, there's a great alternative you can opt for, and that's an underfloor heating system. It provides excellent heat output, thoroughly warming up your home or commercial building.

But it can be hard to consider an installation when you don't know much about underfloor heating. That's why we've put together this comprehensive guide that tells you everything from how underfloor heating works to the cost of underfloor heating so you can decide whether this is the right solution for you.

Key takeaways

  • Underfloor heating provides efficient warmth throughout the room, replacing bulky radiators for enhanced comfort.
  • While effective for heating, underfloor systems are not designed for cooling, which may lead to inefficiencies and potential issues like condensation during summer months.
  • Turning off underfloor heating in warmer seasons can save energy and allow for maintenance checks.
  • For cooling, it's recommended to use separate air conditioning units rather than relying on underfloor heating systems.

What is underfloor heating?


Underfloor heating is a modern heating solution that provides warmth directly from the floor. Unlike traditional radiators or forced air methods, this system employs a series of pipes or electrical heating elements installed beneath the floor surface.

Heat is evenly dispersed from the floor, creating a uniformly warm environment. This method enhances energy efficiency and room aesthetics, eliminating the need for visible heating units. The heat rises from the floor, maintaining a consistent and comfortable temperature throughout the room. Underfloor heating is suitable for various flooring types because it creates a cosy and evenly heated space.

Types of underfloor heating systems

Electric underfloor heating

Electric underfloor heating is designed with a network of thin wires beneath the floor. When electricity flows through these wires, they generate heat, effectively warming the room from the ground up. This type of heating is remarkably adaptable to small or uniquely shaped areas, as the wires can be arranged flexibly to cover any space.

Installation is typically more straightforward and less invasive than water-based underfloor heating systems, requiring minimal floor-level elevation. Controlled by a thermostat, this system allows for precise temperature adjustments. Its compatibility with various flooring types and efficiency in heating small spaces make it a popular choice.

Hydronic (water-based) underfloor heating

A hydronic underfloor heating system circulates heated water through pipes under the floor. Typically connected to boilers or solar heating systems, this method effectively distributes heat across large areas. The system's installation is more intricate, making it ideal for new construction or significant renovations.

Notably efficient in energy usage, water underfloor heating is a preferred choice for extensive spaces. Its long-term cost-effectiveness and ability to integrate with existing central heating systems add to its appeal. Wet underfloor heating provides a consistent and comfortable warmth, making it a popular option for residential and commercial buildings.

Comparison of Electronic underfloor heating and Hydronic underfloor heating

How does underfloor heating work?

There are two central underfloor heating systems, and they each work differently. Here is how both electronic and water underfloor heating systems work:

Electronic underfloor heatingHydronic underfloor heating
Uses resistive wires embedded in mats to generate heat when electricity passes through them.Operates through pipes installed beneath the floor, circulating heated water from a central boiler or alternative sources.
Heat spreads evenly across the floor and into the room.Evenly transfers heat to the flooring material above, radiating warmth throughout the room.

What are the benefits of underfloor heating?

Advantages of underfloor heating: uniform warmth, space efficiency, healthier air quality, energy savings

The two different types of underfloor heating systems come with a host of benefits, significantly enhancing the comfort and efficiency of homes:

Uniform warmth

This heating method ensures an even spread of heat throughout the room. Traditional radiators often create hot spots near the radiator and cooler areas farther away. Underfloor heating eliminates this problem, providing a consistent temperature across the entire space, which adds significantly to the comfort of a home.

Energy savings

Underfloor heating systems are known to be energy efficient. They operate at lower temperatures than conventional radiators but still provide comfortable warmth. This efficiency can lead to noticeable reductions in energy usage and, consequently, lower heating bills. Over time, these savings can be substantial, making underfloor heating a cost-effective option in the long run.

Space efficiency

Installing underfloor heating systems removes the need for bulky conventional radiators, thus freeing up wall and floor space in a room. This opens up possibilities for interior design and furniture layouts not constrained by the need to accommodate traditional heating units. The increased space and flexibility can be especially beneficial in smaller rooms.

Healthier air quality

Traditional heating systems often circulate dust and allergens throughout a room. In contrast, underfloor heating provides warmth without relying on air currents. This means there is less movement of dust, which is particularly advantageous for individuals with allergies or respiratory issues. The result is a healthier living environment with improved air quality.

Sleek design

Underfloor heating systems are invisible once installed, as all elements are hidden beneath the floor. This leads to a cleaner, more minimalist aesthetic in a room devoid of visible heating units. It's an elegant solution that complements modern interior design trends, allowing for a seamless look in any room.

How is underfloor heating installed?

Collage depicting the installation process of a warm floor system beneath a concrete screed.

Installing underfloor heating involves a series of steps, each crucial to ensure the underfloor system functions efficiently and safely. This process varies slightly between electric and hydronic systems:

  1. Design and layout assessment: A detailed plan is created initially. This involves measuring the space, choosing between electric or hydronic heating, and designing the layout for optimal heat coverage.
  2. Subfloor preparation: The next step is preparing the subfloor. It should be clean, even, and dry. Repairing any imperfections is essential to avoid issues later. Installing insulation beneath the heating elements is recommended for better heat retention, particularly with electric systems.
  3. Installation of heating components:
    • In electric systems, heating mats or cables are carefully laid out according to the design plan. These elements are then connected to the electrical system and a thermostat for temperature control.
    • For wet underfloor heating systems, pipes are arranged and laid out on the floor. These are connected to a central boiler or heating source. The pipes are often embedded in concrete screed for protection and heat distribution.
  4. System connection:
    • Electric underfloor systems are integrated into the home's electrical circuit, linking to a thermostat.
    • A wet underfloor heating system, typically a boiler, is connected to its heat source and includes a manifold for water flow regulation.
  5. Testing phase: The system is rigorously tested before the final floor surface is laid. For hydronic systems, this includes checking for leaks, while electric systems are tested for electrical safety and functionality.
  6. Final flooring application: Once testing confirms everything is working correctly, the chosen flooring material – be it tile, wood, or laminate – is installed over the heating system.
  7. Calibration and setup: Finally, the thermostat is calibrated, and the system settings are adjusted according to user preference.

How can I maintain my underfloor heating system?

While underfloor heating systems require little maintenance, there are a few steps you can take to maximize their longevity and performance effectively. Here’s how to ensure they remain in top condition:

Routine checks

It's essential to conduct regular inspections. This means checking for any underfloor heating pipe leaks or obstructions for hydronic systems. A qualified technician should periodically review electric systems to ensure all electrical components function correctly.

Thermostat care

Regularly testing the thermostat and control units is essential to confirm they function accurately, ensuring efficient temperature regulation.

Addressing hydronic system leaks

In the rare event of a leak in a hydronic system, immediate professional attention is needed to prevent flooring damage and maintain system efficiency.

Protecting the floor

Avoiding physical damage is crucial. Heavy objects or sharp tools should not be used on the flooring surface where heating elements or pipes are installed, as they could cause damage.

Professional maintenance

Scheduling professional maintenance every few years can catch and resolve minor issues before they become major problems, thus ensuring the system continues to run smoothly.

What does underfloor heating cost?

Calculator, pipes, and coins on a floor heating system plan

Underfloor heating systems are generally cost-effective. Analysing the costs associated with underfloor heating systems requires a look at both the upfront installation expenses and the long-term operating costs, which vary between electric and hydronic systems.

Upfront installation expenses

  1. Electric systems are generally less costly to install than hydronic systems. Materials usually cost between £5 and £15 per square foot. This cost can increase with professional installation fees.
  2. Hydronic systems: Installation costs for hydronic underfloor heating are higher, averaging between £6 to £20 per square foot. This includes pipe expenses, a boiler or heat pump, and labour. It is more economical when installed during new construction or extensive renovations.

Ongoing operational expenses

  1. Electric systems: The running costs are influenced by local electricity prices and usage patterns. They typically incur higher operational expenses, especially when heating larger areas.
  2. Hydronic systems: These systems generally have lower running costs. They are more efficient for larger spaces or whole-house heating. Operating expenses vary based on the type of heat source used and the system's overall efficiency.

Additional cost considerations

  • Insulation quality: Adequate insulation significantly lowers operational costs by reducing heat loss.
  • Thermostat efficiency: Using smart thermostats can lead to energy savings, thus lowering operating costs.
  • Size and frequency of use: Smaller areas or infrequent use can reduce the system's operational costs.

Final thoughts

Comparison of two rooms in winter with and without a heated floor system

Underfloor heating systems present a modern, efficient, and comfortable solution for home heating. Whether opting for an electric or hydronic central heating system, the benefits of even heat distribution, energy efficiency, space-saving design, improved air quality, and aesthetic appeal make them an attractive choice for many homeowners. While the initial installation costs can be significant, particularly for hydronic systems, the long-term energy bills and added comfort savings can make these systems a worthwhile investment.

For those in Scotland considering underfloor heating, Next Level offers professional installation services. With expertise in hydronic systems, Next Level can provide tailored solutions to meet your specific needs. Whether it's a commercial or residential property, our team of experienced professionals can ensure a seamless installation process, offering you the comfort and efficiency of underfloor heating.

You can contact Next Level for underfloor heating installations to explore your options and get a detailed consultation. Our knowledge and experience in this field make us a reliable choice for bringing the modern luxury of underfloor heating into your Scottish home.

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